miércoles, septiembre 12, 2012

L'APOLLONIDE


La mujer cosificada.

Bertrand Bonello nos aproxima en su última película -Sección Oficial del Festival de Cannes el año pasado-, a una “casa de tolerancia”, un espacio dedicado a la fina prostitución ubicado en  París a finales del XIX, en un limbo entre uno y otro siglo. En esa brecha temporal es donde el director de De la guerre (2008) narra de forma dispersa, rompiendo la linealidad tradicional, las vidas de una serie de prostitutas encerradas en ese mundo del que prácticamente no salen a lo largo de la película. Sus vidas, dividas entre la luz blanca del día, cuando descansan, juegan y comen, y el rojo de la noche, en las que entregan sus cuerpos, consisten en ponerse sus máscaras y satisfacer a sus dueños protegidas por un cierto aire de indolencia que les sirve como escudo ante el miedo a creer en el amor, que en este contexto supondría creer que algún cliente quisiera pagar sus deudas para poder escapar quizá a otra realidad no menos penosa. Cada personaje apenas tiene una historia que contar, solo trazos, fugaces y fantasmales imágenes que se nos van presentando pero que nunca terminan o siquiera comienzan. Tampoco estamos ante una película coral en el sentido tradicional, porque aquí no hay verdadera unión, ni sus voces se unen para decirnos algo en concreto, salvo el dolor escondido que recorre sus vidas. La única prostituta que tiene una historia y al mismo tiempo un deseo, es la que saldrá peor parada, Madeleine. En ella el soñar se ha convertido en una pesadilla que la hará consciente del lugar en el que realmente se encuentra. Uno de los clientes mutilará su rostro creando una sonrisa artificial al cortar brutalmente las comisuras de su boca, atrocidad que le relegará del resto, convirtiéndola en un monstruo que será reclamado por clientes cada vez más perversos, quienes la exhibirán como un objeto único. Se produce así la auténtica cosificación de la prostituta. Al perder su propio sentido, la belleza, la mujer mutilada pasa otra categoría social. Su máscara es ya su propio rostro y su deformación su mayor atractivo. Esa sonrisa eterna y grotesca, es la metáfora perfecta respecto a lo que sucede en ese prostíbulo de lujo. Mantener la apariencia de satisfacción, de deseo hacia el que paga, da igual cual sea su condición, físico o moralidad. Pero esa apariencia no se puede separar de su ser, ya es ella. Su gesto no tiene vuelta atrás, ha quedado petrificado en su rostro.

Bonello filma ese espacio como si se tratara de una casa de muñecas rodeada por ventanas que ellas no pueden ver pero por las que nosotros sí podemos observar. Esta idea, tiene su equivalente visual en la utilización de la pantalla partida, recurso que nos permite ver distintas acciones al mismo tiempo y así convertirnos decididamente en voyeurs incómodos que siempre observan desde el exterior. Esta simultaneidad nos convierte en vigilantes con el poder de acceder a cualquier cuarto o a cualquier intimidad, igual que la Madame de la casa, que ve a través de los espejos el quehacer de sus chicas. Sin embargo, nunca estamos realmente en el centro de las acciones. No somos los clientes y tampoco las prostitutas, simplemente miramos desde fuera, a partir de la distancia que el director ha creado. Esa casa de tolerancia es un mundo clausurado y perdido que vive continuamente en el tiempo, que parece no haber dejado de existir, como si ellas fueran fantasmas atrapadas en su propia condena. El final de la película, que nos lleva hasta el presente y a la prostitución actual, más que ser una comparativa banal, sirve para indicarnos que esas vidas y esos cuerpos de algún modo continúan estando en aquella casa en un tiempo suspendido. De aquí es de donde nace el lado terrorífico de la L’Apollonide. Bonello, confeso admirador del cine de horror, crea una atmósfera contradictoria y justamente más opresora por esta contradicción. Primero, mediante los suaves movimientos de cámara, el exquisito trabajo de la luz, las referencias pictóricas y esos bellos cuerpos desnudos que se exhiben pero que tampoco se muestran en su trabajo -una brutalidad obviada a favor de la cuidada forma-, crea un ambiente sensual. Después, mediante una banda sonora inquietante, que evidencia la desesperanza reinante entre las mujeres del burdel, y la sordidez de un espacio trasformado tras el velo de la belleza en un infierno rojo, descubrimos que nos hallamos en un mundo sin escapatoria. Los cuerpos de las prostitutas dejan de ser atractivos y deseables. A diferencia del Saló (1975) de Pasolini, donde el director italiano nos mostraba mediante una forma cruda y distante, un experimento político ideado por un grupo de personajes abyectos que humillaban y satisfacían sus deseos, buscando con ello no solo hacer una crítica al fascismo sino especialmente al capitalismo y la sociedad de consumo de los años setenta en Europa, la película de Bonello opta por un filme histórico perfectamente contextualizado gracias a la estética de los burdeles de la época. En Pasolini había una equivalencia en forma y contenido: la crudeza. Bonello crea un espacio bello y sensual para ocultar un negocio sórdido. Así, se produce un contraste entre la apariencia y lo que hay detrás, entre el esplendor de los cuerpos y las enfermedades que los corroían, entre esas paredes de terciopelo y la madera carcomida que las sostiene, entre la búsqueda del amor por parte de los clientes y el vacío de aquellas almas anuladas por la repetición del gesto. Un mundo ritualizado que define una época de belleza caduca preludio de un siglo, el siglo XX, que se caracterizará por la muerte industrializada. Madeleine, la judía, se convertirá en tan solo unas décadas más tarde en un cuerpo consumado. La cosificación llegará entonces a su más alto grado.

DANIEL V. VILLAMEDIANA

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